Acronym for Free or open-source software. Software, like Joomla, that is available to use, copy, study, and change in any way without charge. FOSS software typically uses a special software license, such as GPL, that requires any derivative works to also be free.

A user level on a Joomla site with access permissions to the back-end (via a separate log in) and some front-end privileges. Think of Manager users as Publishers, with Back-end access.

One of the three elements of the model-view-controller design pattern. The model encapsulates the data used by the component. The model is typically all about the “business” or “domain” logic and the database. The base API class we use for models is called JModel.